What is Endogenic Force
There are various forces shaping the Earth over a long period of time. They work from beneath as well as above the surface of the Earth. One of the most important physical forces is Endogenic Force. It takes place from within the Earth, and involves the use of heat. It is responsible for the formation of many landforms as well as the destruction on the surface of the Earth. So what is Endogenic Force? Let’s find out:
This force acts from beneath the surface of the Earth. There are three layers that the Earth is made up of; the crust, the mantle, and the core. The crust is the thin, topmost solid layer spread across continents and oceans and varies in thickness. However, it is not a continuous layer and is broken into pieces which are known as plates. The plates are of two types; continental plates and oceanic plates. These plates move constantly and the movement occurs very slowly. The mantle layer, which is located below the crust consists of semi-solid molten liquid. This heat can be referred to as primordial heat. The heat inside it creates a convection current which causes the plates of the crust to move. This creates various landforms and is called Endogenic force, which is a geomorphic process. It is also known as endogenetic force. Endogenic forces are divided into two types basis the speed at which they take place.
Sudden Endogenic Forces-
These forces transform the surface of the Earth in a short span of time. Therefore, these usually cause destruction on the surface of the Earth and are caused when the plates of the Earth’s crust interact with each other in different ways.
Landforms formed due to Sudden forces:
When the lithospheric plates of the earth slide past each other, in opposite directions they create vibrations on the surface of the earth which is known as earthquakes. The origin point of an earthquake inside the Earth’s crust is called the ‘focus’ and the place lying just above the focus on the surface of the Earth is called the epicentre. The earthquakes cause damage and destruction on the surface of the Earth. They are measured on the machine known as a seismograph and the intensity is measured through the Richter scale. Earthquakes lead to disasters and leave cracks in the Earth. Many times, these cracks tend to spill fire and lava from within the Earth.
They are openings created on the surface of the Earth from where the molten material from inside the Earth erupts out suddenly and forcefully. The plates moving away from each other create a weak area on the Earth’s surface, which results in the formation of volcanoes and volcanic eruptions. These eruptions can take place from the “mouth” or top of the volcano, as well as the cracks in the side of the volcano.
A landslide is the movement of rocks and other material down a slope of a mountain or cliff and is affected by vibrations in the Earth’s crust.
Diastrophic Endogenic forces-
They continue to occur slowly and for a long span of time folding, bending and warping the surface of the Earth. They create some of the most beautiful landforms like mountains, valleys and forests. We can never feel this change happening as the plates move very gently.
Landforms formed due to diastrophic force:
When the lithospheric plates of the earth move towards each other, they fold and warp into a raised surface called mountains. They are elevated well above the ground and take hundreds of thousands of years to form. They start off as small bumps, then transform into hills and slowly mountains. E.g. The Himalaya mountains near India, which formed when the Indian subcontinent collided with Asia millions of years ago.
When the lithospheric plates of the earth move away from each other, they cause large cracks in the surface of the Earth called ridges. These ridges keep increasing in size. Many ridges form in dryer atmospheres with grainy soil, since there aren’t a lot of trees or fertile soil binding the land together.
Due to the movement of the lithospheric plates of the earth, many landmasses have joined together or separated to form the seven major continents; North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa and Antarctica. Millions of years ago, the Earth was one supercontinent. Slowly, the first islands formed and were separated from the mainland. Several continuous volcanic eruptions contributed to the supercontinent seperating into 2 smaller continents. These continents later split up more two from the seven continents we know today. Australia is the large island in the world, and the only island continent.
Instability in Endogenic Force
Endogenic forces are also becoming increasingly unstable. With the mining humans are doing deep into the Earth’s crust, the plates that form the crust are breaking. This means that the occurrence of disastrous Endogenic forces may become more common, and the formation of new landforms due to Diastrophic Endogenic force may decrease. This also means earthquakes will become more common because the plates, which are being broken, will move away from each other and crack. This can cause great damage to the Earth’s surface in the future.
Endogenic forces aren’t the only forces acting on the Earth. Another prominent force is Exogenic force, which acts on top of the Earth’s surface through agents like wind, water, ice, etc.Share this Post